The Cappuccino

The Cappuccino

If we were to say that brewed coffee is to be like wine, and espresso perhaps akin to creating an intense, complex spirit (like whisky), then I would say that the cappuccino is my favourite coffee cocktail. The combination of espresso and milk might seem a little simple, but calling a martini simple because it contains only gin and vermouth would be rather missing the point.

I’ve wanted to write about the cappuccino on here for a long time, for a lot of different reasons. The way I’ve thought about the cappuccino has changed a great deal over the years, but what has really prompted this post is pure selfishness. It is much easier now, in London certainly, to get a great espresso. If you enjoy milk in your drink then likely the best thing you’ll find is a flat white. A good cappuccino still remains pretty hard to find, and as I discovered when I logged my coffee consumption, I drink quite a lot of them!

Cappuccinos have never really been cool. It’ll be a long time yet before the word stops conjuring everything we hate about espresso based drinks gone wrong: badly brewed espresso, scalding hot milk, a looming, wobbly peak of milk froth all lovingly smothered in cheap cocoa. Delicious, no?

Around the cappuccino there remains a great deal of myth. One to get out of the way quickly: the name for the drink has nothing to do with the hoods of monk’s robes, nor the bald spot on their head. The original name for the drink was a kapuziner, and it was a Viennese drink was the 19th Century. It was small brewed coffee mixed with milk or cream until it attained the particular shade of brown that matched the colour of the Capuchin monks’ robes. Essentially the name implies the strength of the drink. If you want a genuinely traditional cappuccino then don’t even bother firing up the espresso machine. a

This moves me onto the next frustration I have with myths of the modern cappuccino. The strange mystery of the rule of thirds. The rule of thirds is passed around to this day, and describes a traditional cappuccino as being a third espresso, a third milk and a third foam. I was taught this very early on, as were a good number of people reading this. It didn’t take long for the oddity of it to dawn on me. Are we saying then, that if a single espresso is 25ml then a single shot cappuccino ought to be 75ml total? Nonetheless I still see cappuccinos that are labelled as being traditional with a recipe of being a double shot in a six ounce cup. This certainly fulfils the rule of thirds, but outside of the last 5 years I’ve yet to find any evidence or history of a double shot six ounce cappuccino existing to give it any form of tradition. This doesn’t make this drink any less tasty – it is a very tasty drink done well – I am just saying that traditional isn’t really a word that is accurate in its description. Would one describe a 12oz cappuccino, with a double shot at the bottom pulled long to 4oz, as traditional? I’m not slavishly devoted to, nor infatuated with, tradition. I just think we ought to use the term appropriately.

I own a good number of coffee books, and I’ve gone through a lot of them. The first reference to the cappuccino recipe of thirds I’ve found was in the 50s and it was described as being “an espresso mixed with equal amounts of milk and foam.” This sentence appears, pretty much verbatim, a number of times. It is a little ambiguous as it could be saying that only the milk and foam are in equal quantities, or that all three are. So the recipe of 1:1:1 could easily be meant to be 1:2:2. The single shot, 5-6oz cappuccino does have a long tradition, and is incredibly easy to find through much of Italy and the parts of Europe that haven’t succumbed to more generous portions of coffee as retail. It is also, when done well, absolutely delicious.

I used to be a little resentful of cappuccinos, to tell the embarrassing truth, because they were really hard to pour nice latte art into. (Bearing in mind that for almost all of my coffee career I’ve worked for companies that didn’t have cups bigger than 6oz). Barista competition didn’t help. I was guilty, as most competitors are, of prioritising the six point box for appearance (latte art or traditional) over the 24 point box for taste. I’d keep the foam as close the 1cm line (that was then the minimum) as possible – despite this meaning I was adding more milk than necessary and diluting the espresso further. This spread into my coffee making outside of competition. I began to resent foam (for want of a better phrase) and the cappuccino as a result. When people would complain about the lack of foam I wouldn’t be receptive – I thought this implied being out of touch, old fashioned. The arrogance of youth….

This is not all coming to a conclusion where I detail out the perfect cappuccino (though I will share what I currently really enjoy) I’m all for interpretation and individual presentation. I’m also for differentiation and definition and all too often I see cappuccinos that are nearly identical in recipe to other drinks on the menu, and that in the hands of different staff the drinks become completely interchangeable. This is true across the entire coffee industry, regardless of city or nation, of independent or chain.

In an odd way this is a plea for foam. I love really well textured milk foam. I like a decent amount of it in my cappuccinos too. I am not ashamed of this, though a more youthful me might have been. I really don’t mind if all that can be poured in the top is a heart of maybe a tulip. I love Intelligentsia’s policy of no rosettas in cappuccinos. Latte art is a good thing, but it still carries more weight than it is worth.

Our aversion to foam has created our own worst customers. Every barista I know hates making “dry” cappuccinos. 9 out of 10 people who order one, when asked why they want a dry cappuccino, explain that they are sick of getting drinks that are basically caffe lattes with a little chocolate on top. The only way to get the amount of foam that they want (that they have found) is to order the cappuccino dry. If you don’t believe me then ask them yourself. (Not in an accusatory way, but be genuinely interested and they’ll be happy to tell you.)

So – my current cappuccino recipe. Be warned, it is detailed (though with tolerances).

– Brewed into and served in a 5oz (150-160ml) bowl shaped porcelain cup. b
– 15 to 17g of espresso c
– 80-90g of milk, steamed to around 50-55C. d
– The rest should be creamy, marshmallowy foam with bubbles so small they’re pretty much invisible. e

I’m not going to label this “the perfect cappuccino” because that sort of thing makes me angry. It is just what I am really enjoying and I’d be interested to know what people think and what they are enjoying too. I suspect some people might take my thoughts about “traditional” cappuccinos above as an attack on their menu/store/brand/business. They are not. Hopefully it will generate a little discussion instead. Now don’t even get me started on flat whites….

  1. If you don’t believe me, that’s ok – I haven’t linked to any information here to back up my claims. There is plenty of information but if you are genuinely interested in this then the person to speak to is Professor Jonathan Morris, who wrote The Cappuccino Conquests. More information is pretty easy to find with a minimum of google-fu.  (back)
  2. No tulip cups, though they are easier to find in the smaller size.  (back)
  3. One spout of a double basket, I am going to presume you’re making too because they ought to be shared, or the other espresso should be consumed to alleviate a lack of caffeination. This liquid dose is dependent on the amount of coffee brewed, so we’re going to say 20g of coffee, brewing time of approx 28s and an extraction of 19-20%  (back)
  4. The cooler the better really. UPDATE – original post suggested 45C, which might be too cool for general enjoyment  (back)
  5. This will give you a coffee strength of around 1.8-2.0% which means there is plenty of strength in your single shot coffee drink. Ironically an underextracted short double, in a 6oz cup without much foam isn’t much stronger than this – 2.0-2.4%  (back)

93 Comments The Cappuccino

  1. Mat Short

    We have a dome of froth whose height is defined by the first pour. We layer our froth and then sort of ‘drop’ it in from the jug after letting it settle for around 20 seconds. The result is almost all light froth (good news for the ‘dry’ cappuccino lovers!) and if it’s level with the top of the cup or 10mm above, we let the milk decide!

  2. Mat Short

    if the milk is frothed well, it shouldn’t spill as it’ll be too thick. Our test is to shake a cup and see if it wobbles. We like the froth to help contain the espresso in the cup and keep it warm while slowly mixing with it. I wonder if sometimes we over-complicate a very simple drink?

  3. sila

    It must have been in Harvard Square (Cambridge, Mass.) where I had my very first enjoyed coffee, around 1982, in a Mexican restaurant. Since then I have had many coffees and for some 20 years – until around 2005 – I ordered mostly cappuccini and in Vienna Melange. The last years I have concentrated on espresso.
    Reading this post – by the way, Thank You for it! – has reminded me of the importance of good quality cappuccino. While I was drinking these (those 20 years) I opted for what is called “Triest Cappuccino”, which is basically a regular drink served in a smaller cup, a bit larger than an espresso cup. Thus, there is less space for the milk, making it a better balance between milk and espresso.
    Yes, it could be seen as a cocktail.

  4. John Stubberud

    Hey, what a fun blog post (including the contributrions!)

    The history and ‘evolution’ of the cappuccino has intrigued me since I first started making them exactly 20 years ago. It was a different world back then, when the milk foam was judged by the ability to carry the weight of a sugar lump (anyone remembering the early 1990’s?) :)
    But where did the cappuccino come from? Did it originate in some italian alchemists workshop in the late medieval times, or in a capuchin monestary in the late renaissance? What was the ‘original’ receipe like (January 1176 was it?), and is it preserved in a museum like Francis of Assisi’s brown robe?
    I discovered soon that coffee literature (and coffee books!) is rarely written with an academical approach, and sources for everything from Kaldi to Gesha is shrouded in myths and odd lore. Interesting, that the second most traded commodety in the world has so little research behind it, resulting is musings about dancing goats and monks’ bald heads…

    Tempting, now, to say I have followed the footprints of capuchin monks back in time, to find myself moving from the coffee scene in Oslo, to Austria, and right now living on ‘kapuzinerberg’ in Salzburg.
    Well, I did -move, yes, but not for the quest of the origin of the capuchin colour :)
    The kapuziner (capuchin) monestry is actually next door, and the monks walk the streets of Salzburg in their red-brown robes as they have done in centuries here as in many of Europe’s older cities..

    The first capuchin monks in Austria, though, arrived in the late 16th century, and came to Vienna in the first half of the 17th century to build a monestary there, and just as in most other important cities in Europe they became an integrated part of the city’s daily life, recognizeable in their red-brown robes with pointed hoods.

    As you write, the italian cappuccino has its roots in Austria, in the ‘kapuziner’; -probably not originating here in Salzburg, but in the coffee house scene of Vienna. The ‘kapuziner’ was, next to ‘franziskaner’ and ‘phariseer’ just one of the many popular beverages on the coffee menues in 19th century Vienna (‘kapuziner’ is mentioned for the first time in Austria in 1853), but no one is sure exactly where it was served the first time.
    The elegant cafés of the capital of the Kaisertum Österreich became an arena for the upper classes, and fun names for coffees and desserts became a sport: soon, ‘Kapuziner’, ‘Einspänner’, ‘Fiaker’, ‘Ãœberstürzter Neumann’ and ‘Maria Théresia’ and other beverages composed of coffee with milk or cream added — and often whipped cream, cocoa, honey, rum sugar or spices – – spread out of Vienna along side a huge variety of elegant cakes, desserts and pastries to the other cities of the Austrian Empire; among them BudaPest, Prague, Krakow, and Trieste.
    Trieste had been part of Austria (an important port) all the way since the 14th century, and ‘viennese’ coffee houses bloomed there in the time of Queen Victoria like in the other cities of the old empire. The ‘kapuziner’ was soon just one of many coffees on the menu there as in other austrian cities large enough to sport a decent Café.

    A ‘Kapuziner’ was in the 1800’s presumably made from a dark-roast coffee (what wasn’t?), brewed (probably in different ways) on pre-espresso era coffee machines, and cream was added carefully just to give that desired colour of capuchin brown. No whipped cream and no steamed milk, just a little cream. ‘Franziskaner’ (franciscan monk) is another variety with more cream, to resemble the colour of lighter brown robes of this order.
    The idea of using ‘capuchin’ as a term for colour goes further back in history, though: already in 17th century England, a manufactor of ceramic drinking vessels named a glazed, brown one in their catalogue (!) a ‘capuchin’, and the french later used the term ‘capucine’ as a comment in the early 19th century on the new craze of interiors made of darker wood. If something was nick-named ‘capuchin’, then it sported a nice red-brown. Even today, the french name given to a small cup of coffee with a little milk is ‘noisette’ ( ‘hazel nut brown’ ) , and in Italy something similar is named ‘marocchino’ (often with the addition of cocoa), referring to the old maroccan trade of colouring leather in just this red-brown nuance.
    More so then than now, a cup of coffee served at a coffee house or a café was a different experience, and it was in the upper class, bourgeoise cafés that these elegant coffees were created.
    The rest of Europe followed: elegant cafés in the viennese style opened in Paris (‘Cafe de la Paix’ in, yes, Boulevard de Capucines), in Berlin, London, Amsterdam and so on. The austrian coffee menu, however, turned out to be too diffecult to both translate and export, often resulting in ‘tribute’ variations like ‘Café Viennois’.
    More things changed: During the latter half of the 19th century, the World Exhibitions showed several attempts at presenting coffee machines suitable to serving good coffee to large groups. The french were up front, but after Luigi Bezzera improved the steam pressure system in these old locomotifs, the italians took the lead, and around 1920 the term ‘espresso’ was common: coffee brewed for each single cup. The old, 19th century Café machines were soon history.

    The austrian empire fell with the gunshots in Sarajevo, and Trieste and part of southern Austria suddenly belonged to Italy in 1918. By now, the café scene in Europe had changed even more; people travelled more than ever before, and the pavement cafés in the continental cafés and restaurants were more crowded, coffee was served faster. The old cafés in earlier Austria-Hungary became a mere shadow of the past, though. The Sacher Torte was passé. Europe developed ‘coffee regions’: a coffee in Italy was now short and dark, and the steamed milk was a novelty, and the italian cappuccino it seems came about in a renaissance some time after WW1, but although the cappuccino is not mentioned in Italy until the 1930’s we may assume it was a term in at least Trieste, Venice and Milano already in the 1920’s; for sure, the german speaking regions of northern Italy had always pronounced their ‘kapuziner’ with an italian accent.
    (In the UK the first use of the term ‘cappuccino’ is registred in 1953).

    All in all; the ‘original’ cappuccino was not invented in neither Firenze nor Roma. As in other evolutionairy processes, the cappuccino is far from home in most places :)
    Perhaps the austrians were not the first to add milk into the european coffee, but it is in Vienna the word ‘kapuziner’ is used for the first time on a coffee drink. The first ‘kapuziner’ opted to resemble the capuchin robe, but the italian descendent took on a different appearance altogether.
    Just like a ‘macchiato’ is explained in different ways by the barista in Milano and the roaster in Merano («it means ‘spotted’», «it means ‘dirty’!», «it means ‘marked’ with a spot!»), the cappuccino is approached quite differently by all of us. In Vienna, you can even be served Kapuziner and cappuccino in the same café!
    As for 1:1:1 -if we should look to Italy for the truth: -the coffee used by the italians in the first half of the century (and certainly in war times) was of an inferior quality, and the roast reputably dark; it for sure shone through the texture of the milk way back then. The porcelain cup used for serving a cappuccino in an italian Caffè in the 30’s and 40’s was not tulip shaped, but more actually as you suggest, lower and more ‘open’. Myself, I prefer the cappu in smaller cups, and with a nice, thick top: I also like the out-dated terms ‘scuro’ for a less milkier one, and ‘chiaro’ for a whiter one.
    But I do not argue with my customers: I’d ask how they would prefer their cup, and politely add an anecdode on how close a ‘large’ cappuccino is to whatever comes next on the menu. I think.
    The italians may want to be the ones defining the espresso world, and hey, it sounds cool in italiano – -but the ‘origin’ of something very often has a past history. ‘Coffea Arabica’ has ‘Coffea Canephora’ (robusta) as one of its ‘ancestors’, with another unlikely ancestor being ‘Coffea Eugeniodes’. And out of these two came ‘Arabica’. Now, even to a biologist, that’s alchemy!

    Sorry, rambling on there. Quite a long one, that.

  5. L Poggioli

    Ciao belli! This post is fantastic.
    I’m Lorenzo from Rome, sorry for my bad english in advance.
    Nobody talk about coffee quality and the “torrefazione”/coffee roasting( I think these are the main differents between italian and rest of the world coffee.
    Doesn’t matter about 1:1:1, milk bubbles or whatever.
    The main and best coffee quality is “arabica” (

    The best coffe in Italy is in Naples, where they are really mad about it! They have tons of problems: no job, rubbish in the street, drugs and thieves… but coffee is a must! Following old rules like cup temperature (80° celsius!!!) they serve the best coffee in italy.

    Another one great coffee i had in the world was in Bogotà, Colombia, quite long but reaaly good!
    So, forgot Starbuck, take a flight.

    How to..:
    Ciao Rega’

  6. Shibalik Sanyal

    I am Shibalik from India. Well, I am really excited after reading this blog post. Truly speaking, I am also addicted to coffee, an in our country, we usually stick with Nescafe. I tried cappuccino first time when I was in college. It was self made and the taste was horrible. Though later in some coffee shop, one of my friends gave a treat and then I experienced the real taste of it. As I am not that good in coffee making, so I let my mother to read this blog. Because I think she is the only person in my life who could understand the recipe.

    But I should share the golden moment when I held the cup of kopi luwak. It was in the last summer. I went to my uncle’s place for a change. Basically this is most expensive coffee and let me tell you that if you haven’t tried it yet, then you should try once.

    I have also tried arabica, but still I could hardly forget kopi luwak.

    Sorry, if I bored you. But I am still looking for another good one from you. Bye.

  7. Sean Milnes

    i agree on so many levels. working in a fairly naive city, i often run across those that expect a pile of bubble bath-like foam on top of half a cup of shitty espresso. slowly ive been able to change the minds of most cap drinkers in the shop.

    what i think is most important (only because latte art seems to be the mark of perfection in america) is banning rosettas in caps. if you have the right texture to pour a beautiful rosetta it would seem that the drink isnt a cap. i agree with your preferred milk texture and require all barista at the shop i work at to strive for this texturing practice. i think im responding in hopes that this method will become viral!

  8. Dave

    What? Thats what I shower in. Grab a thermometer and do some test my man. Great blog BTW James. (seriously, buy a new temperature measuring device. In my opinion, when using run of the mill thermometers, dont buy cheap ones and test them against others, or a DMM with that function.) Cheers, :)

  9. Chico

    I have hunting around the web for a great cappuccino recipe for my blog. One thing that has really come to light is that everyone has different taste buds and make their favorite specialty beverage according to their likes. What a fascinating top.

  10. Phil Mackay

    “Now don’t even get me started on flat whites…”
    I’d be interested to know what your issue is? (not really knowing how these are being made in the uk)

    As a point of interest, these really began in NZ as a kind of rebellion against the poorly made mountain (and i mean MOUNTAIN) of bubbly airy fluff on top of an insipid bitter shot of nasty espresso that people thought was a cappuccino in this country about 20-25years ago.

  11. ToniAnn

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  12. Jimmy Oneschuk

    Nice little blog post. Not going to get into semantics here, but I’ve moved away from the rule of thirds. Instead, standard double – and milk stretching much as you’ve described: doubled volume, bubbleless microfoam (emulsion, really) but I virtually pour off all the liquid phase into a second pitcher, and use this wet velvety foam. Having Josh Hockin and Mel in my shop set me on a path to question my capp bev prep… and it sort of culminated this summer as such. And I agree about the bowl shape… any tapering at the cup’s rim doesn’t seem to maintain mouthfeel.

    Anyhow, since I’ve switched to this method, my capp sales to latte sales ratio is often on the capp side.

  13. Pedja

    Dear James
    For years the cappuccino has been my morning ritual now and I can say that I agree and appreciate your text. In modern, also often called progressive, coffee culture I have often discovered disappointing capps. I must say I prefer the 5oz size and cannot cope with a larger amount of milk in a drink, but as far as the temperature is concerned I would like to test your proposal along with a 60 and 65 C variation. It would be interesting to see whether there is any sensual difference for example regarding caramelized sugars in the milk and how this affects the espresso. (My feeling is that a 60C cup would taste a little sweeter)
    Best wishes from Germany

  14. Claire

    Hi James

    I think it’s also the case that what constitutes a traditional cappuccino differs even in Italy. I know quite a few Italians of baby-boomer age who are adamant that the foam should be a distinct layer – not as dry as traditionally served in the UK, Australia and US, but not completely smooth and wet either. When my Italian uncle makes a cappuccino, the foam texture is somewhere between that of yoghurt and whipped mousse – fluffy but still moist. He says the foam should not completely blend in with the milk, otherwise it will dilute the coffee too much. Because of this, even though he makes his cappuccinos with one shot, they still taste strong enough.

    However, my uncle is from the south of Italy, and so are most Italian migrants where I live (Australia). Here you’ll find most of the cafes run by Italians still serving even drier foam, but you wouldn’t dare tell them that what they’re doing isn’t traditional. In contrast, the “third wave” cafes, quite often not Italian-run, do their cappuccinos with latte art and claim that they’re returning to tradition too.

    Maybe they’re both right. I noticed the different interpretations on the two occasions I’ve been to Italy. The first time was nearly 10 years ago, and I just went to Rome and the south, and the cappuccinos were close to what my uncle serves – drier foam with a discernible white domed effect (but no chocolate, and small cups) The next time, nearly two years ago, I went to the north as well, and had cappuccinos closer to what the new wave cafes serve, with microfoam and sometimes latte art. I noticed this style of coffee being served in the south too.

    While I prefer cappuccinos the way my uncle makes them, both styles are great done well. But it looks like the wet style is being considered the ultimate expression, particularly because of the use of latte art, and I don’t think it is. It would be a shame if another regional variety, if that’s what it is, disappears. I’d like to think there’s room for both.

  15. Jordan Ewbank

    Back in the states, I’d say 90% of the ‘traditional’ cappuchinos I’ve served have been 1.5-1.75 oz. of espresso with roughly 3 oz. of milk and 3 oz. of foam.  Granted, nearly all the places I’ve been working at have had demitasse, gibraltars (for cortados), and then 8oz mugs.

    Slightly off topic, but what are your views on cortados?  I’ve had them served as both essentially 5 oz lattes, but have also had them as equal parts latte milk and espresso.  I enjoy both quite a lot, but have always been confused on which is the industry standard.

  16. John Stubberud

    A  Café Cortado’: if you think about it;  the name indicates a spanish origin (and we know it is);  -now, a spaniard will probably tell you what it is and how it is prepared, but its characteristics would be determined by spanish coffee and spanish milk/cream, wouldn’t it? Traditionally, it has been served in a small glass, and in its evolution, the coffee shots have been considerably ‘longer’ than in let’s say Italy. The milk has traditionally mostly been canned and sweetened milk (thick, condensated).
    Now, in the toursitic places and upscale Cafés of Madrid and Barcelona better quality beans and fresh milk has been used (and this is spreading).

    In Oslo, Norway, ‘Cortado’ is prepared with the locally preferred espresso blends and fresh milk, in traditionally 6 oz porcelain cups, as coffee shops in other parts of the world would serve a ‘flat white’ and their regular cappuccino:  you use the standard blend and the standard milk and also all the standard parametres for brewing all other espresso drinks.

    It’s almost like preparing ‘Irish Coffee’ with the locally preferred spirits.

    Or the longdrink ‘Mojito’:  it goes without saying that it should be prepared with jamaican rum, but there are exceptions out there. Most bartenders are not aware of the huge diversity of the mint plant -resulting in your summer drink tasting like toothpaste or deodorant.

    ‘Cortado’ can of course be made with your own espresso blend  -it is not dictated by Franco that it must be coffee as the spanish traditionally have imported and roasted it, nor that it is hand milked from andalucian cows.

    But, as with other exported beverages and dishes, something dictates the approach:  spanish tourists will delight in your coffee menu if you put ‘cortado’ and ‘carajillo’ up there. It may not taste like home, though.

    I’d like to compare it to ‘Café au lait’ too:  -most coffee books will tell you this is brewed coffee (filter or ‘french press’) and hot milk, and thus indicating this is how this beverage is served presumeably in France.  As this term spread some sixty years ago across northern Europes new cafés, it was prepared using espresso and steamed milk. ‘Caffèllatte’ was not born yet. In Norway, ‘Café au lait’ is an espresso beverage -served in french soup-like bowls still.
    But noone would use french standard beans and roast or the low quality milk used in french cafés.
    Is it still worth the name?

    A ‘Saladee Nicoise’ -originating in Nice, Côte d’azur, they say-  -can be twisted around with sardines from other oceans and olives from greece if you like, it still is perceived as a ‘nicoise’.

    A ‘Rudesheimer-Kaffee’ from Germany dictates specifically that the Weinbrand ‘Asbach’ should be used when preparing it, and a court case in northern Germany brought some light onto the the alcohol content in the ‘Fharisäer’, as a guest in a Coffee House complained it was too ‘weak’  -the court came to the conclusion that the oldest ‘receipe’ of the ‘Fharisäer’ defined it as having ‘a dominant flavour of local rum’.

    Apart from the ingredients, a ‘cortado’ should be served in a glass on a saucer, and the amount of milk or cream is 50/50 with the coffee.
    Adding more milk makes it ‘Café amb llet’ in the catalan speaking regions  -or ‘café con leche’ in regular spanish  :).

  17. S.C.Farrell

    Today is the first day that I came across your blog and I have to say I really enjoy reading it.
    Although only a college student at the moment, and a total beginner when it comes to coffee and related drinks, I hope to be a professional Barista in the future.

    Currently I am trying to learn the needed skills at home by myself on a “Cusinart” espresso machine.

    As someone who clearly knows what they are talking about, do you have any advice you could give me?

    Many Thanks!

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